Early rotary egg beaters

Vintage rotary egg beater

Classic vintage egg beater with wooden handle. Photo by photoptimist.

Hand-operated rotary egg beaters were invented just before 1860, but at that time it wasn’t yet clear what the best design for the job would be. Different inventors had different ideas for labour-saving ways of whisking eggs. The first beaters with rotating parts were probably an American design patented in 1856 (below right) and, in England, Griffiths’ Whisk patented 1857 (below left). A very different “egg-beater” invented in 1849 is illustrated near the bottom of the page.

rotary egg beater patent

First US patent for a Rotary Egg-Beater, 1856, invented by tinner Ralph Collier of Baltimore, MD, in partnership with Alfred H. Reip, tin and iron ware manufacturer.

Rotating beaters with a handle were always going to work best, but they came in different forms. Some early ones were fixed inside a pot, and couldn’t be used with the cook’s own choice of mixing bowl. Some were developed by the same inventors who designed small hand-cranked butter churns.

Griffiths egg beater Victorian

Egg beater invented by E.P.Griffiths of London, patented in 1857. "Every revolution of the handle gives 288 strokes."

By the 1880s, mechanical egg beaters were usually the shape we know now. In the US they were called Dover egg beaters after being popularised by the Dover Stamping Company. The company acquired patents from a series of inventors, starting with the Monroe egg beater (below right), patented in the US in 1859. This design got a UK patent soon after and was manufactured in London by George Kent who also marketed the Griffiths model.

Some inventors focused on whipping egg whites and emphasised how much air they could get into the mix. Others wrote about batter and other mixtures as well as eggs.

Monroe egg beater patent

Egg beaters in 1859 looking quite like today's, apart from the screw clamp. Invented by James F. Monroe of Fitchburg, MA and Edward Pear Monroe of New York. Patent drawing right and English ad left.

Eggs prepared by beating are thoroughly charged with atmospheric air… (Collier patent, 1856)

Who used the new egg beaters?

The 1856 patent, like others after it, said how useful the new invention would be for hotels and restaurants as well as for ordinary households hoping to speed up a “laborious and fatiguing operation”. But some people may have been influenced against the new egg beaters by cookery experts who didn’t think highly of new-fangled devices.

…beat…with the proper stroke, and with wooden rods, and in a shallow, flat-bottomed earthen[ware] pan. The coldness of a tin pan retards the lightness of the eggs. For the same reason do not use a metal egg-beater…..put…the egg-beater always down to the bottom of the pan…Continue till the surface is smooth as a mirror, and the beaten egg as thick as a rich boiled custard… (Eliza Leslie, The Lady’s Receipt-Book, 1847)*

A genuine Dover egg beater, based on an 1873 patent granted to Ethan Handley of Chicopee Falls, MA, and assigned to Dover.** Photo by Elizabeth Thomsen.

However, by the 1890s The “Dover” egg beater was well-established in the US and was often mentioned in recipes and ads. In the 20 years between 1870 and 1890 Dover made 4 million egg beaters. Almost all were “family size” but they also sold 1000 “hotel size” and 10,000 “extra family size”.**

There’s less evidence of rotary beaters getting a firm grip in Victorian Britain, although some people certainly used them. With no well-known brand like Dover, they were advertised as “one-minute” or “ten-second” beaters, or with fanciful names like Biatrope or Archimedian. Advice on cooking and equipping kitchens mostly assumed an ordinary wire whisk would be just fine. Rotary hand mixers seem to have been even less popular in continental Europe.

To clamp or not to clamp?

vintage egg beater 1930s

1940-ish beater with frame and table clamp, similar to US patent granted to Norwegian Harry Hansen. Photo copyright Dias Museum.

Holding the beater by screwing it onto something fixed seems like a good idea, rather like an electric mixer set firm on a stand. The Monroes’ clamp was part of the original design, but you do wonder how it would work in an ordinary kitchen. Was the bowl held below a table? In 1859 a UK business demonstrated an “egg whisk, fitted with arrangement for screwing to table”.

The later 1800s saw numerous US patents for original clamping devices, presumably trying to improve on what we may call a “normal” clamp. But how many people really used egg beaters like this? Not many have survived. Most antique egg beaters are clamp-free.

Perhaps a hand egg beater is more versatile without a screw fitting? Perhaps the clamp has to be solid and strong to be effective? But then it would be more nuisance for washing and storing. The advertising I’ve seen doesn’t mention clamps.

EGG-BEATER:  We have tried five different kinds in Boston, before a large audience and on the demand of an inventor of one, but none could beat eggs as well as a common hand-beater. The whites of the eggs could not be raised with any of the others much more than half as much as with the common one; and besides, could not be beaten stiff……Any tinsmith can make an egg-beater. It is generally made with tin-wire, but may be made with brass-wire.
1867, Handbook of Practical Cookery, Pierre Blot

First egg beater 1849

Patented by Josiah Lorkin, London, 1849, and shown at the Great Exhibition of 1851, the spikes broke up the eggs as they were shaken. He thought of including wire gauze, or a rotating "spindle" for a bigger version.

Notes

*Eliza Leslie’s advice was often quoted from the 1850s to 1870s
**Massachusetts reports: cases argued and determined in the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts,  Jan – June 1895

Photos

Photographers credited in captions. Special thanks to Ema Marx of the Dias Museum for photos and correspondence. Thanks also to photoptimist for the first picture and Elizabeth Thomsen for the Dover beater photo.
More picture info here


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{ 6 comments… read them below or add one }

AnnMarie Docker August 2, 2012 at 7:12 pm

I have an orginall kents Improved Egg beater which was given to me 20years ago,It is with great intrest that i read your article.

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Janet Foust October 18, 2012 at 10:13 pm

I am looking for the history of the Maynard co., who made hand beaters in the 1950′s. I want to know about the company and what other products the made.

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Scott Maynard November 8, 2012 at 4:10 am

I just discovered that the Maynard Manufacturing Company was based in Glendale CA. Its 1950 Master Mixer was based on a 1923 design. That design uses hard nylon plastic on the dashers to minimize splashing. They also made Ice Cream Scoops, as I have one of those.

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Novella Childress February 24, 2013 at 4:07 am

I just purchased a rotary hand beater with an emblem resembling a shield with a strike through it . I found one similar but with an aqua handle instead of the brass or copper one I purchased. The one I found on line said EAMES. Do you have any idea what that means?

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Paul williams July 14, 2013 at 7:09 am

Hi there, I have come across a Josiah Lorkin iron stone egg beater pictured above.and its in excellent condition. Would this beautiful strange beater be worth much ? I have listed it on ebay,Best regards Paul

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Wendy January 31, 2014 at 10:41 pm

I have a book on all old beaters Dover Beaters and other brand manufactured between 1829 and 1880 price guide and later years. Book Tittle and Author (300 Year of Kitchen Collectibles ) by Linda Campbell Franklin. I believe the large soft cover book is still available. There were many different ages of the Egg Beaters which I want to share prices with based on 1991 appraisals.
Oldest to Newest;
Dover Beaters Patent 1829 – 1880 ($165-$200) Pending shape
Paine, Diehl & Co Patent c. 1885-1895 ($125.00-$200) Pending Shape
French Early Zig Zag LeTourbillion Pat no 1,992,564, ’1934′ French early 20 century ($150.00-$250.00) pending shape.
Eggbeaters & Cream Whips, MP Hougen , Whippit Cream & Egg Beater, Duro Metal Product Co. Chicago Pat no, 1,705,639 White & Teal blue marbled wood handle, upright scraper years ’1906-1916 ( $75.00- $100) Pending Shape

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